Pneumonia: A Challenging Health Concern with the Climate Change

Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe1 and Harry-César Ntumba Kayembe2


Pneumonia is still a global health concern with high mortality rate, mainly among children under 5 years and adults over 65 years. In addition to pathogen virulence, immunoevasion capacity, and drug resistance ability, risk factors for the patient include aging, comorbidities, malnutrition, and all causes affecting the immune system. The extent to which environmental disorders affect the respiratory health is established for chronic diseases such as asthma, COPD, and cardiovascular diseases, but less is known about the underlying mechanisms of their impact on infectious diseases of the respiratory system. This chapter aims to recall the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pneumonia, with a focus on the impact of climate change and related risk factors on acute low tract respiratory infections.

Keywords: pneumonia, risk factors, climate change